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Edwin V. Gray Engine
Newspapers of January, 1973 all over the US were all talking about fuel shortages in the US during the cold winter, its effects on the railway services, the planet choking because all the fumes and smog coming out from autos and factories and the possibility of the US limiting the gasoline usages. Some of them were eager for some hope of new sources of clean energy.

It seemed that there was a shimmer of hope in a small laboratory in Van Nuys, California. Edwin V. Gray made what should have been the greatest breakthrough in history when he came up with a way of creating infinite amounts of electric power without consuming any fuel. It was called an Electromagnetic Association (EMA) motor .He said that he already had functions highly clean and pollution-free devices that could indefinitely be used to power almost everything; cars, trucks, trains and even planes.

It can also be used to satisfy the needs every home for electric energy without consuming any from the electric transmission lines, and can supply industrial systems.

His new revolutionary system only needed the power from four conventional 6-volts car batteries. Gray claimed that his new innovation would be able to generate as much power and torque as the conventional internal combustion engine of the same size and weight.

Gray also predicted that the production costs of his EMA would be close to those of the regular internal combustion engines. But, on the other hand, the maintenance costs would be dramatically less. The EMA also promises to solve the world’s pollution problem, providing a highly efficient, super clean system that doesn’t produce any exhaust. When development is completed, it would provide underdeveloped nations an inexpensive power generation system. It might as well replace all current power generation systems being used.

Lightning &”Energy Spikes”:
In discretion of the operation of the EMA motor system, Gray said it was more like recreating lightning. The idea was to build up great amounts of high potential static charges and use it to power his motor.

Richard B. Hackenberger, Sr., vice-president of engineering for EVGray Enterprises, Inc. explained the operation of this motor furthermore. High voltage power is put through the system’s electrical circuitry to produce what he described as a series of high-voltage energy spikes.

These spikes are then transferred to a small control unit which is responsible for the motor’s operations. That controller would be the equivalent of the distributor of the internal combustion engine system, regulating the spikes and determining their polarity and then transmit them to electromagnets housed in the engine’s core.

In the mean time, the recharging system recharges the batteries using 60 to 120 amp pulses. Electromagnets are stationed on both the stator and the rotor of the motor. With a precise control of spikes entering these magnets, it’s possible to utilize the attraction and repulsive forces of the two sets of magnets to provide the motion and generation of horsepower.

The recycle/regeneration system kicks in as soon as the motor starts turning, starting the charging process of the batteries. The pressure in the main cylinder is maintained at half-pound of air pressure to prevent water from condensing inside. Another important aspect of this motor is it doesn’t heat up, the motor operates with full capabilities at 170 Degrees Fahrenheit, when the temperature of the surroundings is around 90 degrees.

The engine actually generates electricity each time the magnets are jolted with the energy spikes, as some charges make it back into the battery in pulses of 60 amps or even higher. The batteries used to power the EMA motor were designed f by McCulloch Electronic Corporation of Los Angeles after intensive researches and testing. They set their eyes on the model 110-75 Energy Center. It was said that it had a very long lifespan could produce great amounts of power despite its small volume and light weight as it used ultra-light weight plastic casings.

The battery also included extra large plates which were separated by glass-rubber separators, as well as a specially formulated lead oxide composition. Two of the four 6-volts batteries were used for motor operations while the other two were used as reservoirs. Furthermore, Mallory Electric Corporation of Carson City, Nevada played a great roll in the pursuit of new electronic pulsing systems.

Long Range & Powerful:
The idea of electric powered cars isn’t something new. It was the fact of large, heavy batteries that made it impractical, especially when such batteries also made it impossible for long range driven vehicles. The maximum range of the present electric driven cars was not more than 150 miles, running at 40 miles per hour. That range was highly affected by the number of times it was used, accelerations and the topography of the roads it’s being driven on.page

On the other hand, the EMA motor only needed to turn at 500 RPMs for a successful recharging operation to take place.

The idea of a self-sustaining motor would appear to violate the theories of electricity and conservation of energy, when, in fact, it just uses a highly efficient system that would maximize the performance of his motor utilizing these theories in a unique way. Such system would enhance the characteristics and interrelationships between electrical, magnetic, and physical components.

The prototype of Gray’s EMA motor was subjected to thorough testing periods. It proved its capabilities to adapt in both automatic and manual transmission cars.

Further testing using dynamometers proved that Gray’s motor can sustain constant operation characteristics. The motor’s RPM was maintained at 2550 RPMs, it generated a constant, 32.5 brake horsepower with 66 ponds of torque. The test was conducted for 21.5 minutes, running on a voltage supply of 25.7 volts.

In attempts to keep the friction levels to a minimal and increasing the system’s efficiency, only three physical male surfaces were contacting the motor. More analysis in that matter proved that the EMA engine was at least 3 times as efficient as internal combustion engine, reaching efficiency rates exceeding 90%, while it’s merely 30% in the internal combustion counterpart.

One of the main reasons of the efficiency rate of Gray’s EMA motor was the magnetic vacuum friction control system. Such system allowed the rotor to be floating inside the motor, taking off all sorts of pressure made by the rotor on its bearing. Thus, no friction is present within the motor when it’s operational.

This motor works by creating a series of pulses of power surges on the time scale of microseconds. These power surges produce magnetic flux fields which can be controlled to operate the motor. This system doesn’t require any cooling system or assembly as the magnetic flux also serves as a coolant source.

Gray’s engine would have been able to work efficiently, unaffected by rain, hot or cold temperatures, it can operate under any sort if weather conditions and can even work in tunnels. It just needs the presence of oxygen.

It’s also immune to external magnetic effects as only the original magnetic field can operate this motor. It also has a magnetic field orientation of 360 degrees in all directions.

Light, Easy to Make:
Gray’s new EMA motor prototype would be weigh around 320 pounds, that’s far less than most of the internal combustion engine present back then. It would be 18 inches long and 12 inches in diameter. Researches proved that the output horsepower is directly proportional to the size of the motor.

Further development would make it possible to reduce its weight and size by the introduction of new light-weight materials and more complex circuitry system.

Most of this remarkable motor can be made in a regular machine shop using mills and lathes. But, that doesn’t include the main drum, the electromagnets or some other various items that can be bought from an auto supply store. The company had plans for a worldwide license agreement that would allow them to manufacture the motor as a whole and make it available for the public.

The EMA motor is also extremely safe for both the user and the environment. It had no cooling fans, no hazardous, high-voltage components exposed, no fuel that that would explode if an accident took place, and there’s no water tanks that would corrode, overheat or freeze.

Also, maintenance operation would be reduced dramatically, as there’s hardly anything to maintain! There won’t be any impurities to affect the systems performance, no carburetor to adjust or clean, no oil or gas filters that would be replaced from time to time, no smog valve, gaskets or even a radiator.

The simple assembly of the motor makes parts maintenance and replacement an easy and quick process.

As for technicians, it would take them less time to learn about the EMA systems than to learn about the other conventional electric engines. Not to mention the time it takes to know about the internal combustion counterpart.

Even from the noise-pollution prospective, Gray’s EMA motor is still a winner. It makes far less noise than any other energy source know to that day. It can even be almost totally noiseless if suppressed in a proper way.

Some say that Gray’s non-orthodox way of thinking that led him to create such engine was the result of a rather unconventional way of education.

Gray was born surrounded by 13 other children. When he was eleven he got attracted to the new-coming field of electronics when he saw the test of a primitive radar system across the Potomac River. Although he was under aged, when he was 15 he volunteered to join the army to attend their advanced engineering school, but his cover was blown a year later and was discharged from the army. It wasn’t the end of the line for him, as he joined the navy after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and served three years in the Pacific campaign.

After the surrender of Japan and the end of the war, he worked as a mechanic while he continued his studies in the field of electromagnetics. After years of testing and experimenting, in 1958 he managed to “split the positive” and had his very first Electromagnetic Association (EMA) motor briefly running 3 years later.

His second prototype was constructed shortly after. It managed to stay on and running for about an hour and a half before it also broke down.

His third EMA motor was so successful that it was running and tested non-stop for 32 days before it was disassembled for analysis. Using his analysis data he started looking for funding for his researches but it was in vain as it was turned down by everyone he went to.

In 1971 he founded his own limited partnership; EVGray Enterprises, Inc. and by 1973 he got hundreds and hundreds of private investors and managed to build his fourth EMA prototype. He was also awarded the "Certificate of Merit" from Ronald Reagan then Governor of California.

He then introduced Richard B. Hackenberger, who used to work for Sony Corporation of America, Sylvania Commercial Electronics, as well as the U.S. Navy as an electronic engineer. Hackenberger added 25 years of experience in the field of electric engineering field. He held an electronic engineering degree from Northeastern University.

He also introduced Arthur M. Lange, vice-president in charge of public relations who served in management and public relations capacities with both Ford and General Motors. As well as George C. Demos, vice-president in charge of marketing who used to work as division general manager for Control Data and as a marketing director for RCA.

Raising a Few Eyebrows:
Gray’s new electromagnetic motor managed to attract the attention of several important government agencies. That included the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Air Resources Board (ARB) and the Department of Transportation (DOT).

He also managed to gather investments for his new innovation from congressmen; Barry Goldwater, Jr, Edward Roybal, Del Clawson, and James Corman, US Senator Alan Cranston, and state senators Alfred Alquist and Nicholas Petris.

John Grogan, the head of the EPA’s advanced automotive power systems department divines said that they received around 20 new energy proposals each week over the period of two years. He stated almost half of them were based on perpetual motion which violates all know thermodynamics laws. A perpetual motion engine is an engine that would produce infinite motion without the involvement of any external power source.

Some of Gray’s skeptics believed that his EMA motor is one of those perpetual motion engine claims, making it an impossible to be true. Gray assured that his system wasn’t even close to the idea of a perpetual motion system, and only a handful of scientists would understand the principles of its operations.

The control unit of his engine would manage the flow of energy to the magnets for each point in time as well as its polarization. It’s just a synchronized system of several attractions and repulsions.

It cost Gray about $1.1 million over 12 years to develop his revolutionary innovation. While, on the other hand, the federal government contributed about $23 million in two years in attempt to develop new cleaner engines. General Motors spent $36 million in a single, and Ford laid out $20 million seeking the same goal.

EMA-4 Motor Preliminary Test Data:

Input Power: 12 volts DC (of a 24 volt DC system, making use of a 12 volt standard starter motor)
RPM: 2550 rpm constant
Horsepower: 100 HP
Brake HP: 32.05
Foot-pounds/minute: 1,057,650
Foot-pounds/second: 755 lbs (includes 110 lb for four 6-volt batteries)
Volume: 42" long x 18" wide x 2" high (overall geometry including control unit, &c. The basic motor is 16" diameter x 24" cylinder which can be repackaged into a 9" diam. x 12" cylinder)
Test Run Time: 21.5 minutes
Battery Voltage Reading at Test Completion: 25.7 volts
Ambient Temperature: 84 degrees constant
Humidity: 51%
Fuel Consumption: None (other than air)
Cooling: Conduction 1/2 pound flow-through air pressure
Magnetic Field Orientation: 360 degrees all directions during motor operation
Lubrication: High temperature bearing grease
Vibration: Negligible
Noise Level: No direct reading taken. Without shielding, no louder than small kitchen appliance (e.g., fan, &c)
Power Hazard: Fully secure, full design safety features
Start Mode: Simple push button, standard 12 volt starter motor
Operating Mode: Rheostat principle with switchable rpm range (500-1300-1950-3350-4100 rpm)
Physical Condition: Motor mounted on wheeled test stand; no external connections to stand.

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